خاکشیر برای انگلیسی زبان ها                  Descurainia sophia for British  

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Descurainia sophia is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Self.The plant is self-fertile


Descurainia sophia - (L.)Webb. ex Prantl.                  
                 
Common Name Flixweed
Family Brassicaceae or Cruciferae
Synonyms Sisymbrium sophia.
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Waste ground and roadsides[17].
Range Europe to Asia. Possibly native to Britain[17].
Edibility Rating  
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Moist Soil Semi-shade Full sun

Summary       
 

Physical Characteristics       
 icon of manicon of flower
Descurainia sophia is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Self.The plant is self-fertile.


USDA hardiness zone : Coming soon


Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Descurainia sophia Flixweed


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brassicaceae_spp_Sturm5.jpg
Descurainia sophia Flixweed
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Fornax
   
Habitats       
 Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses                                         
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Young leaves and shoots - cooked[105, 272]. A bitter flavour[85]. Used as a potherb[183, 257]. Seed - raw or cooked[46]. A pungent taste, it is used as a mustard substitute[61, 74, 105, 183]. The seed can be ground into a powder, mixed with cornmeal and used to make bread, or as a thickening for soups etc[61, 85, 183]. It can also be sprouted and added to salads etc[183]. A nourishing and cooling beverage can be made by mixing the ground up seeds with water to make a thin batter[257]. The seed contains 25.5 - 29.9% protein, 26.9 - 39.7% fat and 3.6 - 3.9% ash on a zero moisture basis[218].
Composition                                         
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.  
Seed (Dry weight)  
  • 0 Calories per 100g
  • Water : 0%
  • Protein: 27.5g; Fat: 33g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 3.7g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [ 218]
  • Notes: The figures given here are median figures of a range that was given in the report.
Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiasthmatic;  Antiscorbutic;  Antitussive;  Astringent;  Cardiotonic;  Demulcent;  Diuretic;  Febrifuge;  Laxative;  Poultice;  Vermifuge.


A poultice of the plant has been used to ease the pain of toothache[257]. The juice of the plant has been used in the treatment of chronic coughs, hoarseness and ulcerated sore throats[4]. A strong decoction of the plant has proved excellent in the treatment of asthma[4]. The flowers and the leaves are antiscorbutic and astringent[218, 240]. The seed is considered to be cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative, restorative and tonic[218, 240]. It is used in the treatment of asthma, fevers, bronchitis, oedema and dysentery[176, 240]. It is also used in the treatment of worms and calculus complaints[240]. It is decocted with other herbs for treating various ailments[218]. The seeds have formed a special remedy for sciatica[4]. A poultice of the ground up seeds has been used on burns and sores[257].
Other Uses
Preservative.

A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[240]. Yields are not given[K]. The leaves have been stored with corn to prevent it from going bad[257].
Cultivation details                                         
We have very little information on the needs of this species but, judging by its habitat it should succeed in most soils in a fairly sunny position.
                                                                                 
Propagation                                         
Seed - sow spring in situ.
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Expert comment                                         
 
      
Author                                         
(L.)Webb. ex Prantl.
                                                                                 
Botanical References                                         
1760
                                                                                 
Links / References                                         

  [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

 

[4]Grieve. A Modern Herbal.
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[17]Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles.
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61]Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74]Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR.
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[85]Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains.
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[176]Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas.
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[218]Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[240]Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[257]Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
[272]Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal
Excellent book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.
Readers comment                                         
 
Elizabeth H.
  Tue Nov 10 2009
I WANT a articel about Descurainina sophia about 10page
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